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  • How to Increase Germanium Extraction from Zinc ...

    Material and EquipmentUnderstanding Germanium InsolubilitySummaryA domestic zinc company supplied the zinc calcine (ZnO, formed at approximately 1000 to 1100°C) and process residue used in this research. Elemental analyses of these materials, as determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometry (ICP), neutron activation analysis (NAA), and wet chemical methods, are given in Table 1. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEH) revealed that the zinc calcine was primarily ZnO, while the process residue contained ZnS, CaSO4, PbSO4, SiO
  • Zinc germanium process - zotvanbier.be

    Zinc germanium process. germanium is mostly gathered as a coproduct of silver copper and zinc production or from combustion residues fly ashes from certain coals which can contain considerable concentrations of germanium 4 In the process of zinc hydrometallurgy process improving the rate of zinc .

  • Recovery of Indium and Germanium from Residues of

    Two optional process concepts for recovering indium and germanium from the zinc process residues are presented: i) RIGAT process where two-lead bearing alloys from Imperial Smelting Process are treated, and ii) Jarogain process where side-streams (e.g. jarosite and gothite) from RLE (Roasting-Leaching-Electrowinning) are processed.

  • Zinc Germanium Process- Jaw crusher ball mill Mining ...

    Process most of the germanium is incorporated into the neutral leaching residue which is the main source for germanium recovery as the largest germanium supplier worldwide yunnan chihong zinc germanium co ltd yunnan china recover germanium shown in figur,Zinc germanium process.

  • Zinc Germanium Oxynitride: Influence of the

    2019-5-25  A series of oxynitride phases in the Zn−Ge−O−N solid solution, with the Zn/Ge ratio varying from 1.4 to 1.9, have been prepared according to different synthetic routes in order to determine the influence of the preparation step on the photocatalytic activity for overall water splitting. Preliminary tests were done in the presence of sacrificial agents to test separately the ability of ...

  • Zinc processing - Ores Britannica

    Zinc processing - Zinc processing - Ores: Zinc ores are widely distributed throughout the world, although more than 40 percent of the world’s output originates in North America and Australia. The common zinc-containing minerals are the zinc sulfide known as zinc blende or sphalerite (ZnS), a ferrous form of zinc blende known as marmatite [(ZnFe)S], and a zinc carbonate known as calamine or ...

  • Leaching process of germanium oxide dust -

    The lead and zinc reserves in this deposit come up to 210 thousand tons [1]. Since there is no independent deposit for germanium, it has been an important resource to recover germanium from lead and zinc metallurgy process. However, it is difficult to enrich the ores by benefi-ciating technology due to its low grade and oxidized minerals.

  • Study on Recovery of Gallium and Germanium from ...

    Hydrometallurgical zinc residuce contains a large amount of gallium and germanium that are of extremely high comprehensive recovery value. A new technology for the reduction and separation from hydrometallurgical zinc residue is developed by making use of the ...

  • Review of germanium processing worldwide -

    It is planned to process the material at the Kokkola zinc refinery in Finland (Germanium, 2002). On September 9, 2003, Boliden and Outokumpu signed a Letter of Intent whereby Boliden intends to acquire all Outokumpu’s mining and smelting operations within zinc and copper and to sell its Fabrication and Technology Sales units to Outokumpu.

  • Extraction Processes for Gallium and Germanium:

    2018-6-16  Germanium is employed as semiconductor in electronics and infrared optic industries. They occur in nature in widely dispersed forms and are associated principally with aluminum and zinc minerals. Gallium is present in bauxite in isomorphous substitution with aluminum, and germanium is contained in significant amounts in sphalerite.

  • Zinc Germanium Oxynitride: Influence of the

    2019-5-25  A series of oxynitride phases in the Zn−Ge−O−N solid solution, with the Zn/Ge ratio varying from 1.4 to 1.9, have been prepared according to different synthetic routes in order to determine the influence of the preparation step on the photocatalytic activity for overall water splitting. Preliminary tests were done in the presence of sacrificial agents to test separately the ability of ...

  • Zinc Germanium Process- Jaw crusher ball mill Mining ...

    Process most of the germanium is incorporated into the neutral leaching residue which is the main source for germanium recovery as the largest germanium supplier worldwide yunnan chihong zinc germanium co ltd yunnan china recover germanium shown in figur,Zinc germanium process.

  • Recovery of Indium and Germanium from Residues of

    Two optional process concepts for recovering indium and germanium from the zinc process residues are presented: i) RIGAT process where two-lead bearing alloys from Imperial Smelting Process are treated, and ii) Jarogain process where side-streams (e.g. jarosite and gothite) from RLE (Roasting-Leaching-Electrowinning) are processed.

  • Leaching of Germanium from Zinc Residue in H 2 SO

    Zinc residue with high germanium, a waste solid product of hydrometallurgical zinc process is dumped continuously, causing the loss of germanium. Zinc residue was characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry methods. The results showed that, the mineralogical compositions of the zinc residue used in this research were zinc ferrite ...

  • Process for the recovery and purification of

    1978-5-23  The invention provides a process for recovering germanium as germanium oxide from a germaniferous metallic zinc which involves distilling the germaniferous metallic zinc under non-oxidizing conditions, recovering the distillation residue which contains the germanium, leaching the recovered distillation residue with chlorine water to convert the germanium into germanium tetrachloride ...

  • Recovery of germanium from synthetic leach solution

    A novel solvent extraction process has been developed to selectively recover indium, germanium and gallium from the cement residue sulfuric acid leach solutions in a hydrometallurgical zinc plant.

  • Germanium recovery by co-precipitation T of germanium

    2009-8-26  process, most of the germanium is incorporated into the neutral leaching residue, which is the main source for germanium recovery. As the largest germanium supplier worldwide, Yunnan Chihong Zinc Germanium Co., Ltd (Yunnan, China), recover germanium shown in Figure 1. In the process, a great deal of chemical material such as tannic acid is

  • Enhancement of photocatalytic activity of zinc

    Enhancement of photocatalytic activity of zinc-germanium oxynitride solid solution for overall water splitting under visible irradiation ... Overall water splitting to form hydrogen and oxygen over a heterogeneous photocatalyst using solar energy is a promising process for clean and renewable hydrogen production on a large-scale.

  • Zinc Germanium Oxynitride as a Photocatalyst for

    2019-5-25  A solid solution of zinc oxide and germanium nitride (Zn1+xGe)(N2Ox) (x = 0.44) is demonstrated to be an effective photocatalyst for overall water splitting under ultraviolet and visible light. The catalyst is prepared by reaction of GeO2 and ZnO under ammonia flow (20 mLmin-1) at 1123 K for 15 h. The crystal structure of the material is investigated by a combination of Rietveld analysis and ...

  • treatment of zinc residues by ausmelt technology at onsan ...

    2012-4-6  Onsan refinery started zinc production employing the Jarosite process for the treatment of zinc ferrite residue, and then switched to other processes, i.e., the Goethite process, the conventional 2 step leaching process and the Ausmelt process. The rationale

  • Leaching of Germanium from Zinc Residue in H 2 SO

    Zinc residue with high germanium, a waste solid product of hydrometallurgical zinc process is dumped continuously, causing the loss of germanium. Zinc residue was characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry methods. The results showed that, the mineralogical compositions of the zinc residue used in this research were zinc ferrite ...

  • Zinc Germanium Oxynitride: Influence of the

    2019-5-25  A series of oxynitride phases in the Zn−Ge−O−N solid solution, with the Zn/Ge ratio varying from 1.4 to 1.9, have been prepared according to different synthetic routes in order to determine the influence of the preparation step on the photocatalytic activity for overall water splitting. Preliminary tests were done in the presence of sacrificial agents to test separately the ability of ...

  • Zinc Germanium Oxynitride as a Photocatalyst for

    2019-5-25  A solid solution of zinc oxide and germanium nitride (Zn1+xGe)(N2Ox) (x = 0.44) is demonstrated to be an effective photocatalyst for overall water splitting under ultraviolet and visible light. The catalyst is prepared by reaction of GeO2 and ZnO under ammonia flow (20 mLmin-1) at 1123 K for 15 h. The crystal structure of the material is investigated by a combination of Rietveld analysis and ...

  • Leaching of Germanium from Zinc Residue in H Solutions

    Abstract: Zinc residue with high germanium, a waste solid product of hydrometallurgical zinc process is dumped continuously, causing the loss of germanium. Zinc residue was characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry methods.

  • Process for the recovery and purification of

    1978-5-23  The invention provides a process for recovering germanium as germanium oxide from a germaniferous metallic zinc which involves distilling the germaniferous metallic zinc under non-oxidizing conditions, recovering the distillation residue which contains the germanium, leaching the recovered distillation residue with chlorine water to convert the germanium into germanium tetrachloride ...

  • US4389379A - Process for selective liquid-liquid ...

    A process for selective liquid-liquid extraction of germanium from an aqueous acidic liquor containing, besides germanium, at least another metal selected from the group which comprises cadmium, zinc, cobalt and nickel. This process includes extracting germanium from said aqueous liquor by contacting said liquor with an organic medium containing a diluent and an extractant, said diluent being ...

  • 含锗氧化锌烟尘的加压酸浸试验研究-Study on Pressure Acid ...

    ;The zinc oxide dust bearing germanium was treated by pressure leaching process for high-efficient leaching of germanium and zinc. The effects of leaching temperature, leaching time, oxygen pressure, sulfuric acid amount, and liquid-solid ratio on the leaching

  • Behaviors of gallium and germanium associated with zinc ...

    2017-5-7  traditional roast-leach-electrowinning process of zinc hydrometallurgy, Ga and Ge can only be retrieved from these zinc sulfide concentrates with low rates of recovery and significantly high costs. Development of oxygen pressure leaching provides a more efficient way to extract germanium and gallium from a zinc sulfide concentrate.

  • Germanium Properties, History and Applications

    Germanium is most commonly produced from sphalerite zinc ores but is also known to be extracted from fly ash coal (produced from coal power plants) and some copper ores. Regardless of the source of material, all germanium concentrates are first purified using a chlorination and distillation process that produces germanium tetrachloride (GeCl4).

  • The World's Biggest Zinc Producers

    The company refined 610,000 tons of zinc in 2017, or about eight percent of global zinc production when including its sister company and subsidiary. The applications for zinc include autos, galvanized steel, and machine parts. Besides zinc, Korea Zinc is also a major refiner of lead, copper, gold, indium, nickel, bismuth, gallium, and cadmium.

  • Leaching of Germanium from Zinc Residue in H Solutions

    Abstract: Zinc residue with high germanium, a waste solid product of hydrometallurgical zinc process is dumped continuously, causing the loss of germanium. Zinc residue was characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry methods.

  • Zinc Germanium Phosphide (ZGP) - Inrad Optics Inc

    2013-8-12  Zinc Germanium Phosphide (ZGP) is one of those few reliable, efficient, high quality non-linear crystals that is ... Crystal growth of ZGP is a multi-step process, developed and refined at Inrad Optics over the past 20 years. Government support through small business innovation research (SBIR) funds during the 1990s, and additional ...

  • The Ge-Zn (Germanium-Zinc) system SpringerLink

    72Pre: B. Predel, and U. Schallner, “Thermodynamic Investigation of Liquid Binary Alloys of Copper with Gallium, Germanium, and Tin, and also of the Germanium-zinc System”,Z. Metallkd, 63, 119–125 (1972) in German.(Thermo; Experimental) Google Scholar

  • Behaviors of gallium and germanium associated with zinc ...

    2017-5-7  traditional roast-leach-electrowinning process of zinc hydrometallurgy, Ga and Ge can only be retrieved from these zinc sulfide concentrates with low rates of recovery and significantly high costs. Development of oxygen pressure leaching provides a more efficient way to extract germanium and gallium from a zinc sulfide concentrate.

  • Germanium Metals and Alloys Products made by

    Germanium is extracted from germanium bearing zinc ores or from certain coal ores, collecting the flue dusts after the burning process. It can occasionally be found in copper ores. Technical

  • The World's Biggest Zinc Producers

    The company refined 610,000 tons of zinc in 2017, or about eight percent of global zinc production when including its sister company and subsidiary. The applications for zinc include autos, galvanized steel, and machine parts. Besides zinc, Korea Zinc is also a major refiner of lead, copper, gold, indium, nickel, bismuth, gallium, and cadmium.

  • The Properties and Uses of Zinc Metal

    A base metal, zinc is primarily used to galvanize steel, a process that protects the metal against unwanted corrosion.The alloys of zinc, including brass, are vital to a wide range of applications, from corrosion-resistant marine components to musical instruments.

  • [Ar]4s 3d 4p USGS Mineral Resources Program

    2015-8-14  The process to recover germanium from coal ash collected from flue dusts at power stations was developed in the 1950s; however, germanium recovery dropped when coal gas was subsequently replaced by natural gas. Currently, ... United States’ germanium-rich zinc mines. Various companies, several of which are based in the United States, produce ...

  • Zinc Suphide (ZnS) Glass Lenses, Blanks, Windows

    Zinc Sulfide (ZnS) Produced using the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process, Vital Materials provides both multispectral (visible through 3-5µm and 8-12µm IR ranges) Zinc Sulfide and regular IR grade Zinc Sulfide lenses and blanks. IR Zinc Sulfide lenses display a high level of index of refraction homogeneity and offers imaging uniformity across the 8-12µm waveband.

  • Metals Processing – Nyrstar

    The Auby smelter is a mid-scale electrolytic zinc smelter. It produces cathodes as finished products, rather than casting into ingots. Feedstock of both zinc concentrates and zinc secondaries is consumed at the plant using the RLE process to produce zinc cathode. Key facts. Products special high grade (SHG) zinc, sulphuric acid, indium metal